Subject area 2. Protective measures against the introduction and spread of quarantine-restricted organisms and other harmful organisms presenting a threat to the territory of the Republic of Poland
International trade in plant material and climatic changes present a risk for the spread of organisms harmful to plants including quarantine-restricted organisms, which must be controlled according to international law. The European list of quarantine organisms, as well as the obligations of Member States to control these pests and to limit their spread are defined in the Directive 200/29/EC.
Project 2.1. Determining areas of potential occurrence of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilys) and development of optimal control strategies
The work is aimed at developing a programme for preventive measures against the introduction of pine wood nematode into the territory of the Republic of Poland, as well as developing control methods to reduce the losses caused by this quarantine-restricted pest.
The results of performed studies are directed to the Plant Health and Seed Inspection, General Directorate of State Forest and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
Project 2.2. Determining the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica vigifera Le Conte) occurrence risk and developing pest reduction programmes
The purpose of the present research is to update and broaden the current programme for reduction of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica vigifera Le Conte) occurrence and economic impact in maize crops with the use of chemical and non-chemical methods.
In order to implement the EU regulations into national law the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development issued a directive on 12 May 2010 on the control and spread prevention of the western corn rootworm (Monitor No.94, entry 606).
Within the framework of this project, research will be conducted to reduce the pest occurrence with the aid of chemical preparations applied before and during sowing, as well as at the period of full growing season. A special emphasis will be on non-chemical measures for limiting the number of the pest under the field and greenhouse conditions.
Project 2.3. Determining the range of morphological and molecular variability of nematodes – phytoparasites for the purpose of identification of the species covered by law regulations
The aim of the project is to develop procedures for the identification of nematode species with consideration of morphological and molecular variability.
Genetic variability is understood as a result of spatial isolation of Polish and foreign populations of nematodes, and also as the effect of genetic diversity of host plants. Therefore, foreign methods for diagnostics of nematode species should be verified and adapted to the populations of nematodes occurring in the soils of the Republic of Poland.
Project 2.4. Determining the range of occurrence of quarantine-restricted or economically important viruses, their diagnostics, population variability and the infection risk assessment by new viruses
The aim of this activity is to determine the range of occurrence of quarantine-restricted and/or economically important viruses, their diagnostics, population variability as well as to investigate the infection risk assessment caused by new viruses on the territory of the Republic of Poland. The European Union law regulations on phytosanitary safety have been enforced on the territory of the Republic of Poland. A special emphasis should be noted in Directive 2000/29/EC which defines a list of agrophages covered by the control requirements. Tomato black ring virus, which occurs both on cultivated and wild grown plants has been specified in the list mentioned above. The research focuses on the diagnosis of threats and molecular biology taking into account the EU phytosanitary legislation and the National Scientific Research and Development Programme in the scope of the priority research direction of 5.4 with the consideration of control methods against harmful pathogens, insect pests and weeds.
Project 2.5. New methods for utilization of potato tubers infected by bacterial ring rot Clavibacter michganensis spp. sepedonicus
The purpose of this project is to define the rules for safe utilization of potato tubers infected by Clavibacter michganensis spp. sepedonicus – a casual agent of bacterial ring rot. According to the European Community regulations this bacterium is regarded as a quarantine-restricted organism covered by control requirements and has been specified in the annex 1 of Directive 200/29/EC. The detailed rules for the control and protective measures against the spread of Clavibacter michganensis spp. sepedonicus in the area of the European Union are defined by Council Directive 93/85 EEC of 4 October 1993 on the control of potato bacterial ring rot (OJ L 259, 18,10,1993, p.1 with latter changes; OJ EU Polish edition, chapter 3, v.15, p.131 with latter changes) hereinafter regarded as “the Directive 93/85/EEC”.
The aim of this activity is to carry out composting potato tubers artificially inoculated by Clavibacter michganensis spp. sepedonicus. The following parameters will be considered the use of microbiological preparations intensifying the process of fermentation and preparing infected tubers for a rapid, efficient fermentation. Conducting the process of fermentation is essential for determining whether the tested material after composting is safe in terms of phytosanitary requirements.
The results obtained from this research will contribute to the improvement disposal and management of infected potato tubers. Moreover, they will be used for the amendment to the Directive of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 6 April 2007 on the detailed procedures for the control and protective measures against Clavibacter michganensis spp. sepedonicus.
Project 2.6. Maintaining the bank of plant pathogenic microorganisms
The purpose of the present program is to collect, preserve and provide plant pathogens (facultative and obligatory fungi, pathogenic bacteria) available in recovered state or in conserved form for agricultural purposes and scientific institutions.
The results of the work are directed to other scientific institutions and the Plant Health and Seed Inspection.
Project 2.7. Genetic characterization and identification of Thrips palmi Karny and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande with the use of molecular biology techniques
The aim of this work is the elaboration of procedures to distinguish two thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips palmi on the basis of molecular biology techniques and morphological characteristics. These two species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips palmi can easily be distinguished at the imago stage based on their morphological characterization, in contrast to pre-imago developmental stages. It is worth mentioning that at pre-imago stages thrips are exposed to viruses and thus they become their vectors. The species of thrips at pre-imago stages are impossible to identify by phytosanitary services. Thus, within the framework of the present work rapid diagnostic methods which allow the species mentioned above to be distinguished will be developed.